El Valle-Boinás/Carlés Reserves and Resources

(see Orvana’s Annual Information Form dated December 27, 2019 for the fiscal year-ended September 31, 2019, pages 17-20)

Cautionary Notes to Investors - Mineral Reserves and Resources Estimates

 

In accordance with applicable Canadian securities regulatory requirements, all mineral reserve and mineral resource estimates of the Company disclosed in this news release have been prepared as at September 30, 2018 in accordance with Canadian National Instrument 43-101 - Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects ("NI 43-101"), classified in accordance with Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum's "CIM Standards on Mineral Resources and Reserves Definitions and Guidelines" (the "CIM Guidelines").

Pursuant to the CIM Guidelines, mineral resources have a higher degree of uncertainty than mineral Reserves as to their existence as well as their economic and legal feasibility. Inferred mineral resources, when compared with measured or indicated mineral resources, have the least certainty as to their existence, and it cannot be assumed that all or any part of an inferred mineral resource will be upgraded to an indicated or measured mineral resource as a result of continued exploration. Pursuant to NI 43-101, inferred mineral resources may not form the basis of any economic analysis, including any feasibility study. Accordingly, readers are cautioned not to assume that all or any part of a mineral resource exists, will ever be converted into a mineral Reserve, or is or will ever be economically or legally mineable or recovered.

In fiscal 2014, the Company engaged an independent engineering firm, Roscoe Postle Associates Inc. (“RPA”), to complete mineral reserves and resources estimates and a life-of-mine-plan update, which were published in the “Technical Report on El Valle Boinás-Carlés Operation, Asturias, Spain” dated September 26, 2014 by Mr. Jason J. Cox, P.Eng., who is a qualified person independent of the Company for the purposes of NI 43-101, and filed on September 29, 2014 (“El Valle Mine 43-101 Report”).

Since the El Valle Mine 43-101 Report, the Company has updated the mineral reserves and resources. The updated mineral resource estimates for El Valle as at September 30, 2019 were prepared by OroValle under the supervision of Ms. Guadalupe Collar Menéndez, European geologist and the Chief of Geology of OroValle, based on updating resource block models incorporating drilling results from July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019 and accounting for production depletion up to September, 2019. Mineral resource estimates are summarized in the tables below.

Summary of Mineral Resources inclusive of Mineral Reserves - September 30, 2019
El Valle – Carlés – La Brueva

Measured

Zone

Tonnes
(kt)

Au
(g/t)

Cu
(%)

Ag
(g/t)

Au
(koz)

Cu
(kt)

Ag
(koz)

 

BOINÁS OXIDES

589.6

4.28

0.67

18.24

80.9

3.9

345.6

 

BOINÁS SKARN

2,255.8

2.95

0.84

18.17

214.0

19.0

1,317.6

 

CARLES

173.0

4.01

0.64

11.02

22.3

1.1

61.3

 

TOTAL

3,318.2

3.27

0.79

17.77

317.2

24.0

1,724.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indicated

Zone

Tonnes
(kt)

Au
(g/t)

Cu
(%)

Ag
(g/t)

Au
(koz)

Cu
(kt)

Ag
(koz)

 

BOINÁS OXIDES

1,911.2

6.01

0.47

6.29

369.4

8.9

386.2

 

BOINÁS SKARN

423.8

3.12

0.70

18.51

42.5

3.0

252.2

 

CARLES

1,006.2

3.87

0.47

9.11

125.0

4.7

294.6

 

TOTAL

3,341.2

5.00

0.50

8.69

536.9

16.6

933.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measured + Indicated

Zone

Tonnes
(kt)

Au
(g/t)

Cu
(%)

Ag
(g/t)

Au
(koz)

Cu
(kt)

Ag
(koz)

 

BOINÁS OXIDES

2,500.4

5.60

0.52

9.11

450.4

13.0

731.9

 

BOINÁS SKARN

2,679.6

2.98

0.82

18.22

256.7

21.9

1,569.8

 

CARLES

1,179.2

3.89

0.49

9.39

147.4

5.7

355.8

 

TOTAL

6,359.2

4.18

0.64

13.00

854.6

40.6

2,657.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inferred

Zone

Tonnes
(kt)

Au
(g/t)

Cu
(%)

Ag
(g/t)

Au
(koz)

Cu
(kt)

Ag
(koz)

 

BOINÁS OXIDES

2,143.2

5.18

0.46

4.75

356.9

10.0

327.2

 

BOINÁS SKARN

215.5

2.74

0.62

16.35

19.0

1.3

113.3

 

CARLES

943.2

4.33

0.42

5.34

131.2

4.0

161.8

 

TOTAL

3,301.9

4.78

0.46

5.67

507.1

15.3

602.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inferred

Zone

Tonnes
(kt)

Au
(g/t)

Cu
(%)

Ag
(g/t)

Au
(koz)

Cu
(kt)

Ag
(koz)

 

LA BRUEVA

122.8

4.51

0.10

19.30

17.8

0.1

76.2

 

Notes:

1. CIM definitions were followed for mineral resources.
2. Mineral resources are estimated at gold equivalent (“AuEq”) cut-off grades of 3.3 g/t for El Valle oxides, 2.7 g/t for El Valle skarns and 2.7 g/t for Carlés Mine skarns. AuEq cut-offs are based on recent operating results for recoveries, off-site concentrate costs and on-site operating costs.
3. Mineral resources are estimated using a long-term gold price of US$1,350 per ounce; copper price of US$3.25 per pound; and a silver price of US$18 per ounce. A US$/Euro exchange rate of 1/1.20 was used.
4. Mineral resources are inclusive of mineral reserves.
5. A crown pillar of 60 m is excluded from the mineral resource below El Valle open pit.
6. A crown pillar of 40m is excluded from the mineral resource below Boinas East open pit.
7. Unrecoverable material in exploited mining areas has been excluded from the mineral resource.
8. Numbers may not add due to rounding.
9. El Valle mineral resources estimates were prepared under the supervision G. Collar, European Geologist, a qualified person for the purposes of NI 43-101, who is an employee of OroValle and thus not independent of the Company.

Mineral reserves were estimated by OroValle under the supervision of Mr. Brian W. Buss, Peng., based on mine designs applied to measured and indicated resources, taking into account appropriate dilution and extraction factors. Mr. Buss, a Professional Mining Engineer, registered in the province of Ontario, Canada, is a qualified person independent of the Company for the purposes of NI 43-101. Mineral reserves are summarized in the table below.

Summary of Mineral Reserves - September 30, 2019
El Valle - Carlés

Proven and Probable

Category

Tonnage
(000 t)

Grade
(g/t Au)

Grade
(% Cu)

Grade
(g/t Ag)

Contained Metal
(000 oz Au)

Contained Metal
(000 t Cu)

Proven

975

2.81

0.70

15.54

88

6.9

Probable

1,153

3.86

0.39

6.07

143

4.5

Proven and Probable

2,128

3.37

0.53

10.41

231

11.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proven

Category

Tonnage
(000 t)

Grade
(g/t Au)

Grade
(% Cu)

Grade
(g/t Ag)

Contained Metal
(000 oz Au)

Contained Metal
(000 t Cu)

El Valle Oxides

318

3.52

0.55

15.96

36

1.8

El Valle Skarns

649

2.44

0.77

15.36

51

5.0

Carlés Skarns

8

4.05

1.37

13.24

1

0.1

TOTAL

975

2.81

0.70

15.54

88

6.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Probable

Category

Tonnage
(000 t)

Grade
(g/t Au)

Grade
(% Cu)

Grade
(g/t Ag)

Contained Metal
(000 oz Au)

Contained Metal
(000 t Cu)

El Valle Oxides

781

4.54

0.39

4.27

114

3.1

El Valle Skarns

165

2.29

0.59

14.97

12

1.0

Carlés Skarns

207

2.55

0.23

5.71

17

0.5

Total

1,153

3.86

0.39

6.07

143

4.5

Notes:

1. CIM definitions were followed for mineral reserves.
2. Mineral reserves are estimated using gold equivalent break-even cut-off grades by zone and mining method, consisting of 4.35 g/t AuEq for El Valle cut and fill Skarn, 2.92 g/t AuEq for El Valle sublevelel stoping Skarn, 3.42 g/t AuEq for Carlés longhole stoping Skarn, 4.20 g/t AuEq for El Valle cut and fill Oxides, and 4.19 g/t AuEq for El Valle sublevel stoping Oxides. Gold equivalent cut-offs are based on recent operating results for recoveries, off-site concentrate costs and on-site operating costs.
3. Mineral reserves are estimated using average long-term prices of US$1,250 per ounce gold, US$3.00 per lb copper, and US$16.00 per ounce silver. A US$/Euro exchange rate of 1/1.2 was used.
4. A minimum mining width of 4 m was used.
5. A no-mining standoff distance of 75m under the Tailings Storage Facility has been applied.
6. A no-mining standoff distance of 42 meters under the Boinás-East old pit has been applied.
7. A no-mining sterilization zone of 4.5 meters below already mined cut and fill developments has been applied
8. A no-mining sterilization zone of 10 meters below already mined stopes
9. A no-mining sterilization zone of 5 meters around waste filled stopes has been applied
10. A portion of the reserves contains incremental material (below break-even cut –off grade). This material was included in the mineral reserves in order to maintain optimum production levels.
11. Numbers may not add due to rounding.
12. El Valle mineral reserve estimates were prepared under supervision of Brian Buss, a qualified person for the purposes of NI 43-101, who is an independent consultant of the Company.

Skarn reserves are evaluated at a break-even cut-off grade of 2.92 g/t AuEq. This average factor resulted from a detailed analysis, which started with a factor of 2.92 g/t AuEq (initial cut-off grade factor calculated and based on the planned data), but which was filled with portions of skarn of 2.68 g/t, and 2.14 g/t AuEq for the purpose of obtaining the optimal grade of skarn to sustain mill feed of 50% skarn; 50% oxides.